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2008 - Present Ecosystem History of South Florida's Estuaries Database version 2

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Lynn Wingard
Publication_Date: 201303
Title:
2008 - Present Ecosystem History of South Florida's Estuaries Database version 2
Edition: version 2
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: MS Access database
Online_Linkage: <http://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/flaecohist/>
Description:
Abstract:
The 2008 - Present Ecosystem History of South Florida's Estuaries Database contains listings of all sites (modern and core), and modern monitoring site survey information (water chemistry, floral and faunal data, etc.).
Two general types of data are contained within this database: 1) Modern Field Data and 2) Core data - location information..
Data are available for modern sites and cores in the general areas of Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay, and the southwest (Florida) coastal mangrove estuaries. Specific sites in the Florida Bay area include Taylor Creek, Bob Allen Key, Russell Bank, Pass Key, Whipray Basin, Rankin Bight, park Key, and Mud Creek core). Specific Biscayne Bay sites include Manatee Bay, Featherbed Bank, Card bank, No Name Bank, Middle Key, Black Point North, and Chicken Key. Sites on the southwest coast include Alligator Bay, Big Lostmans Bay, Broad River Bay, Roberts River mouth, Tarpon Bay, Lostmans River First and Second Bays, Harney River, Shark River near entrance to Ponce de Leon Bay, and Shark River channels.
Modern field data contains (1) general information about the site, description, latitude and longitude, date of data collection, (2) water chemistry information, and (3) descriptive text of fauna and flora observed at the site.
Core data contain basic location information.
Purpose:
Scientists over the past few decades have noticed that the South Florida ecosystem has become increasingly stressed. The purposes of the ecosystem history projects (started in 1995) are to determine what south Florida's estuaries have looked like over time, how they have changed, and what is the rate and frequency of change. To accomplish this, shallow sediment cores are collected within the bays, and the faunal and floral remains, sediment geochemistry, and shell biochemistry are analyzed. Modern field data are collected from the same region as the cores and serve as proxies to allow accurate interpretation of past depositional environments.
The USGS South Florida Ecosystem History Project is designed to integrate studies from a number of researchers compiling data from terrestrial, marine, and freshwater ecosystems within south Florida. The project is divided into 3 regions: Biscayne Bay and the Southeast coast, Florida Bay and the Southwest coast, and Terrestrial and Freshwater Ecosystems of Southern Florida. The purpose of the projects is to provide information about the ecosystem's recent history based on analyses of paleontology, geochemistry, hydrology, and sedimentology of cores taken from the south Florida region. Data generated from the South Florida Ecosystem History project will be integrated to provide biotic reconstructions for the area at selected time slices and will be useful in testing ecological models designed to predict floral and faunal response to changes in environmental parameters.
Biscayne Bay is of interest to scientists because of the rapid urbanization that has occurred in the Miami area and includes Biscayne National Park. Dredging, propeller scars, and changes in freshwater input have altered parts of Biscayne Bay. Currently, the main freshwater input to Biscayne Bay is through the canal system, but many scientists believe subsurface springs used to introduce fresh groundwater into the Bay ecosystem. Study of the modern environment and core sediments from Biscayne Bay will provide important information on past salinity and seagrass coverage which will be useful for predicting future change within the Bay.
Plant and animal communities in the South Florida ecosystem have undergone striking changes over the past few decades. In particular, Florida Bay has been plagued by seagrass die-offs, algal blooms, and declining sponge and shellfish populations. These alterations in the ecosystem have traditionally been attributed to human activities and development in the region. Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are studying the paleoecological changes taking place in Florida Bay in hopes of understanding the physical environment to aid in the restoration process.
As in Biscayne Bay, scientists must first determine which changes are part of the natural variation in Florida Bay and which resulted from human activities. To answer this question, scientists are studying both modern samples and piston cores that reveal changes over the past 150-600 years. These two types of data complement each other by providing information about the current state of the Bay, changes that occurred over time, and patterns of change.
Terrestrial ecosystems of South Florida have undergone numerous human disturbances, ranging from alteration of the hydroperiod, fire history, and drainage patterns through implementation of the canal system to expansion of the agricultural activity to the introduction of exotic species such as Melalueca, Australian pine, and the Pepper Tree. Over historical time, dramatic changes in the ecosystem have been documented and these changes attributed to various human activities. However, cause-and-effect relationships between specific biotic and environmental changes have not been established scientifically. One part of the South Florida Ecosystem History group of project is designed to document changes in the terrestrial ecosystem quantitatively, to date any changes and determine whether they resulted from documented human activities, and to establish the baseline level of variability in the South Florida ecosystem to estimate whether the observed changes are greater than what would occur naturally.
Specific goals of this part of the project are to 1) document the patterns of floral and faunal changes at sites throughout southern Florida over the last 150 years, 2) determine whether the changes occurred throughout the region or whether they were localized, 3) examine the floral and faunal history of the region over the last few millennia, 4) determine the baseline level of variability in the communities prior to significant human activity in the region, and 5) determine whether the fire frequency, extent, and influence can be quantified, and if so, document the fire history for sites in the region.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 20080316
Ending_Date: 20120930
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: In Work
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent: Biscayne Bay, Florida Bay, and southwest Florida coast
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -81.83
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -80
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 26.5
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 24.75
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: biology
Theme_Keyword: geologic core
Theme_Keyword: geology
Theme_Keyword: pollen
Theme_Keyword: ecosystem history
Theme_Keyword: molluscs
Theme_Keyword: diatoms
Theme_Keyword: ostracodes
Theme_Keyword: foraminifera
Theme_Keyword: gastropods
Theme_Keyword: pelecypods
Theme_Keyword: vegetation
Theme_Keyword: ecology
Theme_Keyword: geography
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: biota
Theme_Keyword: climatologyMeteorologyAtmosphere
Theme_Keyword: environment
Theme_Keyword: geoscientificInformation
Theme_Keyword: inlandWaters
Theme_Keyword: oceans
Theme_Keyword: 002
Theme_Keyword: 004
Theme_Keyword: 007
Theme_Keyword: 008
Theme_Keyword: 012
Theme_Keyword: 014
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4, Washington, D.C., National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: US
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard 5-2): Washington, D. C., NIST
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: FL
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:
Department of Commerce, 1990, Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions, and Associated Areas, FIPS 6-3, Washington, DC, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Place_Keyword: Broward County
Place_Keyword: Collier County
Place_Keyword: Miami-Dade County
Place_Keyword: Monroe County
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: USGS Geographic Names Information System
Place_Keyword: Everglades National Park
Place_Keyword: Biscayne Bay
Place_Keyword: Florida Bay
Place_Keyword: Barnes Key
Place_Keyword: Bob Allen Key
Place_Keyword: Clive Key
Place_Keyword: Johnson Key
Place_Keyword: Pass Key
Place_Keyword: Rabbit Key
Place_Keyword: Russell Key
Place_Keyword: Whipray Basin
Place_Keyword: Sprigger Bank
Place_Keyword: Trout Creek
Place_Keyword: Manatee Bay
Place_Keyword: Big Cypress National Preserve
Place_Keyword: Bottle Key
Place_Keyword: Butternut Key
Place_Keyword: Cape Sable
Place_Keyword: Duck Key
Place_Keyword: Ironwood Channel
Place_Keyword: Lignumvitae Basin
Place_Keyword: Little Madeira Bay
Place_Keyword: Nest Key
Place_Keyword: Old Dan Bank
Place_Keyword: Old Sweat Bank
Place_Keyword: Park Key
Place_Keyword: Peterson Keys
Place_Keyword: Porjoe Key
Place_Keyword: Schooner Bank
Place_Keyword: Black Point
Place_Keyword: Card Bank
Place_Keyword: Featherbed Bank
Place_Keyword: Pelican Bank
Place_Keyword: Little Blackwater Sound
Place_Keyword: Lostmans River
Place_Keyword: Harney River
Place_Keyword: Shark River
Place_Keyword: Tarpon Bay
Place_Keyword: McCormick Creek
Place_Keyword: Rabbit Key Basin
Place_Keyword: Buttonwood Keys
Place_Keyword: C-111 Canal
Place_Keyword: Storter Bay
Place_Keyword: Gun Rock Point
Place_Keyword: Pavillion Key
Place_Keyword: Alligator Bay
Place_Keyword: Big Lostmans Bay
Place_Keyword: Roberts River
Place_Keyword: White Water Bay
Place_Keyword: Oyster Bay
Place_Keyword: Rodgers River Bay
Place_Keyword: Broad River
Place_Keyword: Broad River Bay
Place_Keyword: Huston River
Place_Keyword: Chicken Key
Place_Keyword: Arsenicker Key
Place_Keyword: Shell Creek
Place_Keyword: Spy Key
Place_Keyword: Black Creek Canal
Place_Keyword: Florida City Canal
Place_Keyword: Chokoloskee Bay
Place_Keyword: Buchanan Bank
Place_Keyword: Sid Key
Place_Keyword: Otter Creek
Place_Keyword: North Prong Otter Creek
Place_Keyword: Ponce de Leon Bay
Place_Keyword: Taylor Creek
Place_Keyword: Crocodile Point
Place_Keyword: Military Canal
Place_Keyword: Mowry Canal
Place_Keyword: Princeton Canal
Place_Keyword: Long Sound
Place_Keyword: Lake Key
Place_Keyword: North Canal
Place_Keyword: Samphire Keys
Place_Keyword: Monroe Lake
Place_Keyword: Convoy Point
Place_Keyword: Crab Keys
Place_Keyword: Jim Foot Key
Place_Keyword: North River
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: Arsenicker Shoal
Place_Keyword: Dragover Bank
Place_Keyword: Gopher Pass
Place_Keyword: Rankin Lake
Place_Keyword: Central Everglades
Place_Keyword: South East Coast
Place_Keyword: SW Big Cypress
Place_Keyword: Florida Keys
Place_Keyword: Water Conservation Area 1
Place_Keyword: Water Conservation Area 2
Place_Keyword: Water Conservation Area 3
Place_Keyword: Water Conservation Area 2A
Place_Keyword: Water Conservation Area 3A
Place_Keyword: Water Conservation Area 3B
Place_Keyword: WCA1
Place_Keyword: WCA2
Place_Keyword: WCA3
Place_Keyword: WCA2A
Place_Keyword: WCA3A
Place_Keyword: WCA3B
Place_Keyword: Alinas Reef
Place_Keyword: Middle Key Basin
Place_Keyword: Rankin Basin
Place_Keyword: Caesars Cut
Place_Keyword: Black Point Creek Canal
Place_Keyword: Dead Terrapin Basin
Place_Keyword: Arsenicker Bank
Place_Keyword: Goulds Canal
Place_Keyword: Prong Creek
Taxonomy:
Keywords/Taxon:
Taxonomic_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Taxonomic_Keywords: mollusks
Taxonomic_Keywords: vegetation
Taxonomic_Keywords: multiple species
Taxonomic_Keywords: invertebrates
Taxonomic_Keywords: ostracodes
Taxonomic_Keywords: pelecypods
Taxonomic_Keywords: gastropods
Taxonomic_System:
Classification_System/Authority:
Classification_System_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Garbett, E. C.
Maddocks, R. F.
Publication_Date: 1979
Title:
Zoogeography of Holocene cytheracean ostrocodes in the bays of Texas
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Journal of Paleontology
Issue_Identification: v. 53, n. 4, p. 841-919
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Iowa City, IA
Publisher: The Paleontological Society
Classification_System/Authority:
Classification_System_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Keyser, D.
Publication_Date: 1975
Title: Ostracoden aus den Mangrovegebieten von Sudwest-Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name:
Abhandlungen und Verhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg
Issue_Identification: NF 18/19
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Hamburg, Germany
Publisher: unknown
Classification_System/Authority:
Classification_System_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Keyser, D.
Publication_Date: 1976
Title:
Zur kenntnis der brackigen mangrovebewachsenen Weichboden Sud-West Floridas unter besonderer Berucksichtigung ihrer Ostracodenfauna
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Ph. D thesis
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Hamburg, Germany
Publisher: Hamburg University
Classification_System/Authority:
Classification_System_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Keyser, D.
Publication_Date: 1977
Title: Brackwasser-Cytheracea aus Sud_Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Abhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins
Issue_Identification: NF 20
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Hamburg, Germany
Publisher: unknown
Classification_System/Authority:
Classification_System_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Teeter, J. W.
Publication_Date: 1975
Title: Distribution of Holocene marine Ostracoda from Belize
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Studies in Geology
Issue_Identification: No. 2
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Tulsa, OK
Publisher: American Association of Petroleum Geologists
Other_Citation_Details:
in, Belize shelf-carbonate sediments, clastic sediments and ecology
Wantland, K. F., and Pussey, C., III, editors
Classification_System/Authority:
Classification_System_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Abbott, R. T.
Publication_Date: 1974
Title: American Seashells
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: New York, NY
Publisher: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.
Classification_System/Authority:
Classification_System_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Warmke, G. L.
Abbott, R. T.
Publication_Date: 1961
Title: Caribbean Seashells
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Narbeth, PA
Publisher: Livingston Publishing Co.
Classification_System/Authority:
Classification_System_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Perry, L. M.
Schwengel, J. S.
Publication_Date: 1955
Title: Marine shells of the western coast of Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Ithica, NY
Publisher: Paleontological Research Institution
Classification_System/Authority:
Classification_System_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Loeblich, A. R.
Tappan, H.
Publication_Date: 1988
Title: Foraminiferal genera and their classification
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: New York, NY
Publisher: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Inc.
Other_Citation_Details: V. 1 and 2
Classification_System/Authority:
Classification_System_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Andrews, J.
Publication_Date: 1971
Title: Shells and shores of Texas
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Austin, TX
Publisher: University of Texas
Classification_System/Authority:
Classification_System_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Turgeon, D. D.
Quinn, J. F., Jr.; Bogan, A. E.; Coan, E. V.; Hochberg, F. G.; Lyons, W. G.; Mikkelsen, P. M.; Neves, R. J.; Roper, C. F. E.; Rosenberg, G.; Roth, B.; Scheltema, A.; Thompson, F. G.; Vecchione, M.; Williams, J. D.
Publication_Date: 1998
Title:
Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: mollusks
Edition: 2nd
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Special Publication
Issue_Identification: 26
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Bethesda, MD
Publisher: American Fisheries Society
Classification_System/Authority:
Classification_System_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Mikkelsen, P. M.; Bieler, R.
Publication_Date: 2008
Title:
Seashells of Southern Florida: Living Marine Mollusks of the Florida Keys and Adjacent Regions: Bivalves
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Princeton, NJ
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Taxonomic_Procedures:
Cores were sampled every 2 centimeters from the top to base for faunal and geochemical analysis. All samples were washed through a set of nested 63 micron and 850 micron sieves. Sample components from less than 63 microns were dried at 50 deg. C and weighed for 210 Pb analysis. The fractions of samples greater than 63 microns were dried at 50 deg. C and analyzed for ostracodes, formaninfers, and molluscs. All identifiable molluscs (ranging between 5 and 184 specimens) between 97 and 152 ostracode specimens, and 300 foraminifers (when attainable) were picked from each sample with a fine brush. Samples yielding less than 300 foraminifers were picked in their entirety. Every other sample from the core was examined. Faunal groups and species were identified, counted, and standardized by calculating percent abundance within each sample.
Pollen assemblages and geochronology were analyzed from samples collected at 1-2 cm intervals throughout the cores. Pollen was isolated from the samples using standard palynological techniques, including carbonate and silicate removal with HCl and HF when necessary, acetolysis to reduce the amount of phytodebris, sieving through 8 micron mesh to remove clay-size particles, heavy liquid treatment when needed, and staining with Bismarck Brown before mounting on microscope slides with glycerin jelly.
Taxonomic_Completeness:
Ostracode species were identified using the taxonomy of Teeter (1975), Keyser (1975, 1976, 1977), and Garbett and Maddocks (1979). Thomas Cronin and others reviewed the ecology of the ostracode species. Molluscs were identified primarily using Abbott(1974), Warmke and Abbott (1961), Perry and Schwengel (1955) and Andrews (1971), and taxonomic nomenclature was updated following Turgeon et al (1998). Taxonomy of the benthic foraminiferal species was identified using Loeblich and Tappan (1988). Faunal slides are housed in the Eastern Earth Surface Processes Team, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.
General_Taxonomic_Coverage:
Flora and fauna are identified to the "common" names shown on the front page of the database
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Empire
Taxon_Rank_Value: Biovitae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Kingdom
Taxon_Rank_Value: Animalia
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Phylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Mollusca
Applicable_Common_Name: molluscs
Applicable_Common_Name: mollusks
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Phylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Arthropoda
Applicable_Common_Name: arthropodes
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subphylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Crustacea
Applicable_Common_Name: crustaceans
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Ostracoda
Applicable_Common_Name: ostracodes
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Kingdom
Taxon_Rank_Value: Plantae
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subkingdom
Taxon_Rank_Value: Chromista
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Division
Taxon_Rank_Value: Bacillariophyceae
Applicable_Common_Name: diatoms
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Kingdom
Taxon_Rank_Value: Chromalveolata
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Superphylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Alveolata
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Phylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Dinoflagellata
Applicable_Common_Name: algae
Applicable_Common_Name: dinocysts
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Kingdom
Taxon_Rank_Value: Protozoa
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Phylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Protozoa
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Subphylum
Taxon_Rank_Value: Sarcodina
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Superclass
Taxon_Rank_Value: Rhizopoda
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Class
Taxon_Rank_Value: Granuloreticulosea
Taxonomic_Classification:
Taxon_Rank_Name: Order
Taxon_Rank_Value: Foraminiferida
Applicable_Common_Name: foraminifers
Applicable_Common_Name: forams
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints:
The field data contained in the database have not been reviewed for publication and, therefore, may contain inconsistencies or errors. The field measurements (such as salinity and temperature) have been made on a variety of instruments over the years. Every effort has been made to calibrate and standardize the instruments and check the data, however, the field data should be considered preliminary. Also, taxonomic names may not represent the most up-to-date usage, but are internally consistent.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Lynn Wingard
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 926A National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 648-5352
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703 648-6953
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: lwingard@usgs.gov
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <http://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/fs/145-96>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
map showing Biscayne Bay region, seagrass, hardbottom and barren bottom communities
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: GIF
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <http://sofia.usgs.gov/flaecohist/images/maps/FlaEcoHist-map.jpg>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
satellite image showing sampling and core locations in Florida Bay
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name:
<http://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/2006-1271/images/fig1satx.jpg>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
satellite image of the southwest coast of Florida showing general location of cores
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2004/3108/fs2004-3108.html>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
satellite image map of Biscayne Bay, Florida showing sites where USGS cores were collected
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name:
<http://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/flaecohist/LocationPaleoCoreswZoneslg.jpg>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: satellite image showing general areas of cores collection
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Data_Set_Credit:
Principal investigators of the USGS South Florida Ecosystem History projects include Lynn Wingard, Debra Willard, Charles Holmes (retired), Thomas Cronin, Bruce Wardlaw, Scott Ishman (Department of Geology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), and Jacqueline Huvane (Duke University Wetland Center)
Data collected by G. Lynn Wingard, Scott Ishman, Thomas Cronin, Jessica Albietz, James Murary, Joseph Murray, Joel Hudley, Rob Stamm, Bane Schill, Carleigh Trappe, Guy Means, Marci Marot, Casey Saenger, James Gillespie, Chuck Holmes, Eugene Shinn, Margot Corum, Sara Schwede, Jacqueline Huvane, Gary Dwyer, Kristi Alger, Jeffery Stone, Lauren Hewitt, Tom Scott, Carlos Budet, Laura Pyle, Jill D'Ambrosio, Stephen Wandrei, Casey Lowe, Christopher Williams, Bethany Stackhouse, Christopher Wingard, Ruth Ortiz, Frank Marshall, Andy Anderson, and Herb Pierce.
The ecosystem history projects, which collected these data, have been funded by the USGS Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science (GEPES). Biscayne Bay data were funded in part by the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD). Biscayne National Park and Everglades National Park have made the sites accessible to project personnel.
The original database (containing field data from 1995-2007) was designed and developed by Jeffery Stone (1998-2000), under the supervision of G. Lynn Wingard. Carleigh Trappe revised the original design and maintained the database from 2000-2002. Carlos Budet maintained the database from 2002-2009, and Carlos Budet, Ruth Ortiz, Joel Hudley, and Jim Murray assisted G. Lynn Wingard in preparing the database for initial release in fall 2005 (Version 1). This new database (containing field data from 2008-present) was redesigned by Bethany Stackhouse and released in February 2012 (Version 1) and will be periodically updated as new data are collected. Database is currently maintained by Bethany Stackhouse.
Native_Data_Set_Environment: MicroSoft Access database (2007, readable by 2003)
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Poag, C. W.
Publication_Date: 1981
Title: Ecologic atlas of benthic foraminifera of the Gulf of Mexico
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: New York, NY
Publisher: Academic Press
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Ishman, Scott E.
Publication_Date: 1997
Title:
Ecosystem History of South Florida: Biscayne Bay Sediment Core Descriptions
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 97-0437
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accesssed as of 1/11/2011
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/pdf/of/ofr97437.html>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Ishman, Scott E.
Graham, Ian; D'Ambrosio, Jill
Publication_Date: 1997
Title:
Modern Benthic Foraminifer Distributions in Biscayne Bay: Analogs for Historical Reconstructions
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 97-034
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 1/11/2011
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/pdf/of/ofr97034.html>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Stone, Jeffery R.
Cronin, Thomas M.; Brewster-Wingard, G. Lynn; Ishman, Scott E.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Holmes, Charles W.
Publication_Date: 2000
Title:
A Paleoecologic Reconstruction of the History of Featherbed Bank, Biscayne National Park, Biscayne Bay, Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 00-191
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 1/11/2011
Online_Linkage: <http://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/00-191>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Wingard, G. L.
Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G. S.; Ishman, S. E.; Willard, D. A.; Holmes, C. W.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Williams, C. P.; Marot, M. E.; Murray, J. B.; Stamm, R. G.; Murray, J. H.; Budet, C.
Publication_Date: 2003
Title:
Ecosystem History of Southern and Central Biscayne Bay: Summary Report on Sediment Core Analyses
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-file Report
Issue_Identification: 03-375
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 1/11/2011
Online_Linkage: <http://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/03-375/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Wingard, G. Lynn
Cronin, Thomas M.; Holmes, Charles W.; Willard, Debra A.; Dwyer, Gary; Ishman, Scott E.; Orem, William; Williams, Christopher P.; Albietz, Jessica; Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Budet, Carlos A.; Landacre, Bryan; Lerch, Terry; Marot, Marci; Ortiz, Ruth E.
Publication_Date: 2004
Title:
Ecosystem History of Southern and Central Biscayne Bay: Summary Report on Sediment Core Analyses - Year Two
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 2004-1312
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 1/11/2011
Online_Linkage: <http://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/2004-1312/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Trappe, Carleigh A.
Brewster-Wingard, G. Lynn
Publication_Date: 2001
Title:
Molluscan Fauna from Core 25B, Whipray Basin, Central Florida Bay, Everglades National Park
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 01-143
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 1/11/2011
Online_Linkage: <http://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/01-143>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Pyle, Laura
Cooper, Sherri R.; Huvane Jacqueline K.
Publication_Date: 1998
Title:
Diatom Paleoecology Pass Key Core 37, Everglades National Park, Florida Bay
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 98-522
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 1/11/2011
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/pdf/of/ofr98522.html>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Brewster-Wingard, G. Lynn
Ishman, Scott E.,; Willard, Debra A.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Holmes, Charles W.
Publication_Date: 1998
Title:
Preliminary Paleontologic Report on Core 37, from Pass Key, Everglades National Park, Florida Bay
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 98-0122
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 1/11/2011
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/pdf/of/ofr98122.html>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Scott, Thomas M.
Means, Guy H.; Brewster-Wingard, G. Lynn
Publication_Date: 1997
Title:
Progress Report on Sediment Analyses at Selected Faunal Monitoring Sites in North-central and Northeastern Florida Bay
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 97-0534
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 1/11/2011
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/pdf/of/ofr97534.html>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Willard, Debra A.
Brewster-Wingard, G. Lynn; Fellman, Claire; Ishman, Scott E.
Publication_Date: 1997
Title: Paleontological Data from Mud Creek Core 1, southern Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 97-0736
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U. S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 1/11/2011
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/pdf/of/ofr97736.html>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Wingard, G. Lynn
Ishman, Scott; Cronin, Thomas; Edwards, Lucy E.; Willard, Debra A.; Halley, Robert B.
Publication_Date: 1995
Title:
Preliminary Analysis of Down-Core Biotic Assmeblages: Bob Allen Keys, Everglades National Park, Florida Bay
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 95-628
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 1/11/2011
Online_Linkage: <http://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/95-628>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Brewster-Wingard, G. Lynn
Stone, Jeffery R.; Holmes, Charles W.
Publication_Date: 2001
Title:
Molluscan Faunal Distribution in Florida Bay, Past and Present: An Integration of Down-Core and Modern Data
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: paper
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Bulletins of American Paleontology
Issue_Identification: 361
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Ithica, NY
Publisher: Paleontological Research Institute
Other_Citation_Details:
Originally published in Bulletins of American Paleontology, Number 361, November 28, 2001
accessed as of 1/11/2011
Online_Linkage: <http://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/papers/mollusc_distribution/>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Brewster-Wingard, G. Lynn
Ishman, S. E.; Edwards, L. E.; Willard, D. A.
Publication_Date: 1996
Title:
Preliminary Report on the Distribution of Modern Fauna and Flora at Selected Sites in North-central and North-eastern Florida Bay
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 96-0732
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 1/11/2011
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/pdf/of/ofr96732.html>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Ishman, S. E.
Brewster-Wingard, G. L.; Willard, D. A.; Cronin, T. M.; Edwards, L. E.; Holmes, C. W.
Publication_Date: 1996
Title:
Preliminary paleontologic report on core T-24, Little Madeira Bay, Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 96-0543
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 1/11/2011
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/pdf/of/ofr96543.html>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Wingard, G. Lynn
Cronin, Thomas M.; Holmes, Charles W.; Willard, Debra A.; Budet, Carlos A.; Ortiz, Ruth E.
Publication_Date: 2005
Title:
Descriptions and Preliminary Report on Sediment Cores from the Southwest Coast Area, Everglades National Park, Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Open-File Report
Issue_Identification: 2005-1360
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston,VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 1/11/2011
Online_Linkage: <http://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/2005-1360>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Wanless, H. R.
Cottrell, D. J.; Tagett, M. G.; Tedesco, L. P.; Warzeski, E. R., Jr.
Publication_Date: 1995
Title: Origin and growth of carbonate banks in south Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Special Publicaton
Issue_Identification: v. 23
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Cambridge, MA
Publisher: International Association of Sedimentologists
Other_Citation_Details:
in, Carbonate Mud-mounds
Monty, C. V., Boscence, D. W. J., Bridges, P. H., and Pratt, B. R., editors
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Schweitzer, P. N.
Publication_Date: 1994
Title:
ANALOG: A program for estimating paleoclimatic parameters using the method of modern assemblages
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: computer program
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Kovach, W. L.
Publication_Date: 1999
Title: MVSP - A MultiVariate Statistical Package for Windows
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: computer program
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Pentraeth, Wales, UK
Publisher: Kovach Computing Services
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Bock, W. D.
Publication_Date: 1971
Title:
A handbook of the benthonic foraminifera of Florida Bay and adjacent waters
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Memoir
Issue_Identification: 1
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Miami, FL
Publisher: Miami Geological Society
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Hazel, J. E.
Publication_Date: 1983
Title:
Age and correlation of the Yorktown (Pliocene) and Croatan (Pliocene and Pleistocene) formations at the Lee Creek Mine
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: book chapter
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
Issue_Identification: 53
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: Smithsonian Institution
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Cronin, T. M.
Publication_Date: 1979
Title:
Late Pleistocene marginal marine ostracodes from the southeastern Atlantic Coastal Plain and their paleoenvironmental interpretation
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: paper
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Geographie Physique et Quaternaire
Issue_Identification: v. 2
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Publisher: Les Presses de l'Universite de Montreal
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Cronin, T. M.
Publication_Date: 1990
Title:
Evolution of Neogene and Quaternary marine Ostracoda: United States Atlantic Coastal Plain: Evolution and speciation in Ostracoda IV
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: chapter in a professional paper
Series_Information:
Series_Name: USGS Professional Paper
Issue_Identification: 1367-C
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: accessed as of 1/11/2011
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/pp/pp1367>
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Lynn Wingard
Publication_Date: 2004
Title: Changing Salinity Patterns in Biscayne Bay, Florida
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: factsheet
Other_Citation_Details:
Prepared in cooperation with South Florida Water Management District and Biscayne National Park
accessed as of 1/11/2011
Online_Linkage: <http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2004/3108/fs2004-3108.html>

Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
All data are cross checked at least twice to original field notes so entries are correct. In terms of reproducibility, these are living ecosystems, so part of the purpose of the database is to compare repeat observations at the same site over time to note the changes.
The data on occurence of plants and animals are qualitative not quantitative assessments. An absence in the database does not necessarily mean an absence of the species at the sampling site. Observations of plants and animals were noted but this may not have been the primary focus of the data collection at a particular site.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
The field data contained in this database have not been reviewed for publication and therefore may contain inconsistencies or errors. The field measurements (such as salinity and temperature) were made on an variety of instruments over the years. Project personnel have made every attempt to calibrate and standardize the instruments and check the data, however, the field data should be considered preliminary. Also taxonomic names may not represent the most up to date usage, but are internally consistent.
All data are cross checked at least twice to original field notes so entries are correct. In terms of reproducibility, these are living ecosystems, so part of the purpose of the database is to compare repeat observations at the same site over time to note the changes.
Completeness_Report:
The data on occurrence of plants and animals are qualitative notes - not quantitative assesments. Simply put, an absence in the database does not necessarily mean the species was absent at the site. Fieldwork was conducted for a variety of purposes over the years, and these data merely represent observations made at specific times and places, but cannot be quantitatively compared to each other. For example, a species may not have been detected at a specific site on a given date, because we were at the site to collect a core - not do a site survey. We always noted any observations made and these are recorded here, but more species would obviously be detected if we spent 30 minutes doing a snorkeling transect looking for species, than if we were there to collect a core and in the process noted the presence of certain species. Keep this in mind when looking at the data and treat the data on the biotic distributions as observational and qualitative.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
Much of the data were collected using a GPS system to accurately capture the location of the collection site. The accuracy of the positions range from none shown to +/- 493 feet. Many of the sites fall in the +/- 92 feet range. Most of the sites in the database have a GPS accuracy value given. The earlier dates for data collection are usually the ones without an accuracy value.
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy:
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Report: Water depth data are accurate to within 0.25 meter
Lineage:
Methodology:
Methodology_Type: Field
Methodology_Description:
Core Collection.
Core collection sites are determined on the basis of examination of digital orthophotoquadrangles, aerial photos, maps, reconnaissance, and discussion with land managers. Collecting cores is essential to the purpose of this project - to reconstruct the history of the ecosystem over biologically significant periods of time (decades to centuries) and to determine what the system looked like prior to significant human alteration. The sediments, faunal and floral remains in the cores retain this record.
All cores are collected via the "piston" coring method. This provides a minimum of disruption to the sediments. The technique of obtaining the piston core varies somewhat from site to site depending on water depth and accessibility. Following are the general procedures:
1. Marking the site: Specific core site is selected in advance by snorkeling before the boat or equipment is brought up to the site. The chosen site is marked with a float. 2. Set up: If the water depth allows, the boat is floated up to the site, anchored on at least two sides, and coring conducted through a "moon pool" (hatched hole in the bottom or back of the boat). If water depth does not allow us to float the boat over the site, we place the coring equipment on a raft or rubber dinghy, snorkel and float to the site, and proceed with coring. A tripod may be set up and utilized to assist in extracting the core. This is especially useful if the cores are long (>1.5 m) and/or if the substrate is very firm. If used, the tripod is set up prior to starting the actual coring. The purpose of the tripod is to keep tension on the piston while the core is being pushed down into the substrate. 3. Inserting the core barrels: 1. The piston (a hard rubber plug with 2 O-rings) is inserted into the bottom of a 4" outside-diameter clear acrylic tube, and a rope attached to an eye-ring in the top of the piston is threaded back through the core barrel. 2. The core barrel is lowered to just above the substrate and any air trapped in the space between the piston and the bottom of the barrel is removed and filled with water. Tension is then placed on the line attached to the piston, so when the core barrel penetrates the sediment the piston remains in a fixed position a few cm above the sediment surface; this produces a vacuum that retards compaction. 3. When the barrel is set in position it is forced down into the sediments (via muscle power) until we hit bedrock or until we cannot push the core any further. If a replicate core is being taken (side by side cores), the second core is pushed in place at this time, before the first core is extracted so that no disruption of the sediments for the second core will occur due to sediment movement during the extraction process. An aluminum clamp device with handles is usually placed around the barrel to provide a good grip for pushing. 4. Extracting the core barrels: 1. If a tripod was not set up, the aluminum clamp handles are used to extract the cores via muscle power. If a tripod is used, a cable and pulley system can be used to lift the core via a hand winch. With either method, it is critical to keep tension on the piston, because the piston provides the vacuum to retain the sediments in the core barrel as it is lifted. A benefit of the clear core barrel is that it allows us to determine if the piston is moving or if any leakage around the piston's O-ring seal occurs during the extraction process. 2. As soon as the core barrel clears the sediment surface, a person standing in the water quickly places a plastic cap over the bottom of the barrel. The barrel is hoisted vertically onto the boat and the bottom cap secured via waterproof tape. 3. Excess tubing is cut off just above the sediment surface using a large pipe cutter, and any space between the sediment surface and the top of the barrel is filled with water to prevent sloshing and disruption of the surface during transport. A top cap is placed on the barrel and sealed with waterproof tape. 4. If a replicate core is taken, the replicate also is extracted following the same procedures in a-c above.
During the coring process we are very careful to not stand on or damage any organisms (coral, sponges, etc.) or to damage the substrate other than the actual hole from the coring. In many areas, the mud is so soft that the hole caves in/collapses immediately after extraction, and no visible sign of the core is left.
Data recorded at the time of coring include: 1) GPS location (recorded on at least two instruments); 2) water depth to the substrate; 3) water depth to the sediment in the barrel (items 2 & 3 allow calculation of compaction during the coring process); 4) water properties including salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH.
Methodology:
Methodology_Type: Lab
Methodology_Description:
Core processing:
Cores are transported vertically and most are x-rayed as soon as possible (sometimes in the field at local hospitals). Cores are extruded vertically using the piston in reverse to push the sediment out of the barrel into one or two centimeter slices (resembling hockey pucks). The slices are trimmed around the edges to remove any contaminants due to contact with the barrel, bagged and weighed. Wet and dry weights are obtained for each sample.
Processing procedures may vary slightly for each core, depending on the different analyses being conducted and these procedures are reported with results for individual cores. In general, all material is retained. Small (1 cm3) plugs of sediment are removed for palynological analyses and for archival purposes. The remainder of the sample is washed with distilled and deionized water through 63 and 850 micron nylon mesh sieves and all material passing through the sieves is trapped in buckets and allowed to settle out for a period of days or weeks. The water is then siphoned off and the fine (<63 micron) fraction is air dried on filter paper under a hood, then distributed for geochemical and geochronological analyses. The 63 and 850 micron fractions are dried in a 50 degree C oven and distributed for faunal analyses.
Modern Samples:
Actual sampling methods and frequencies vary from site to site, depending on the substrate, water depth, and conditions, and the specific purpose of the sampling. In some cases we have collected small push core samples (10 cm deep by 2"diameter); in others, small samples of vegetation, scoops of sediment, or petite ponar grab samples. At every site we record information on water properties including salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH, and where ever possible, we conduct a snorkel survey of the site listing presence/absence of various indicator macrofauna and flora.
Processing of modern samples follows procedures similar to the core samples, except the <63 micron fraction is rarely retained.
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Shallow sediment cores are collected within the bays and the faunal and floral remains, sediment geochemistry, and shell biochemistry are analyzed. Modern field data are collected from the same region as the cores and serve as proxies to allow accurate interpretation of past depositional environments.
Process_Date: Not complete
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Lynn Wingard
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 926A National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 648-5352
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703 648-6953
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: lwingard@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Modern samples
Actual sampling methods and frequencies vary from site to site, depending on the substrate, water depth, and conditions, and the specific purpose of the sampling. In some cases we have collected small push core samples (10 cm deep by 2"diameter); in others, small samples of vegetation, scoops of sediment, or petite ponar grab samples. At every site we record information on water properties including salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH, and where ever possible, we conduct a snorkel survey of the site listing presence/absence of various indicator macrofauna and flora.
Processing of modern samples follows procedures similar to the core samples, except the <63 micron fraction is rarely retained.
Process_Date: Not complete
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Lynn Wingard
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 926A National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 648-5352
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 703 648-6953
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: lwingard@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
This database was originally designed and developed during the period 1998-2000, under the supervision of G. Lynn Wingard.
New versions of the database are released as new infomation is added.
Process_Date: Not complete
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Bethany Stackhouse
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 926A National Center
City: Reston
State_or_Province: VA
Postal_Code: 20192
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 703 648-6092
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: bstackhouse@usgs.gov

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Indirect_Spatial_Reference: south Florida
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Point
Point_and_Vector_Object_Information:
SDTS_Terms_Description:
SDTS_Point_and_Vector_Object_Type: Point
Point_and_Vector_Object_Count: 252

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geographic:
Latitude_Resolution: 0.01
Longitude_Resolution: 0.01
Geographic_Coordinate_Units: Degrees and decimal minutes
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983
Ellipsoid_Name: Geodetic Reference System 80
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
The following attributes are possible for records in the Modern Field Data: Site #, ID Number, Site (name), Location (Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay or Southwest coast), General Area Description, Changes Observed, Comments, Clarity/Weather/Water/Tide, Collectors, Date Collected, Time, Longitude, Latitude, Instrument Used (for water chemistry), Salinity, Temperature, pH, Dissolved O2, Redox potential, Specific Conductance, Resistivity, Subsample #, Unique sample ID, Sample Type, Site Category, Position, Depth, Sampling Description, Site Description, Comments, Presence/Absence - Debris/Live for Mollusc/Other, SAV, and Terrestrial Vegetation. Not all attributes apply to all sites. The appropriate attributes are populated for each site.
The possible attributes for the Core Locations are: General Location, Core ID #, Core Name, Related Modern Site, Public Information, Date Collected, Collectors, Longitude, Latitude, State, County, 7.5 minute quad, Core Length in Barrel, H20 Depth, General Area Description, Substrate Description, and Additional Information. These attributes are populated as appropriate for each core.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
See the Ecosystem History Access Database at <http://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/flaecohist/> for more detailed information on the attributes for the Modern Field Data and Core Locations.

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather S. Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 600 Fourth St. South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: hhenkel@usgs.gov
Resource_Description: Ecosystem History of South Florida Estuaries Data
Distribution_Liability:
The field data contained in this database have been compiled, standardized and verified to the original records.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: MS Access
Format_Version_Number: 2007
Format_Specification: The Access database is available as a zipped file
File_Decompression_Technique: The file must be "unzipped" before use
Transfer_Size: 3.2
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <http://sofia.usgs.gov/exchange/flaecohist/>
Access_Instructions: The database may be downloaded from the SOFIA website
Fees: none

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20130826
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Heather Henkel
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 600 Fourth Street South
City: St. Petersburg
State_or_Province: FL
Postal_Code: 33701
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 727 803-8747 ext 3028
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 727 803-2030
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: sofia-metadata@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name:
Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata, Part 1: Biological Data Profile
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001.1-1999
Metadata_Access_Constraints: none
Metadata_Use_Constraints:
This metadata record may have been copied from the SOFIA website and may not be the most recent version. Please check <http://sofia.usgs.gov/metadata> to be sure you have the most recent version.

Generated by mp version 2.9.23 on Mon Aug 26 13:11:20 2013

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
Comments and suggestions? Contact: Heather Henkel - Webmaster