Carbonate Aquifer Characterization Laboratory

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Capabilities

The capabilities of the Carbonate Aquifer Characterization Laboratory (CACL) are diverse and have largely concentrated on (1) hydrogeologic framework studies, (2) aquifer characterization, and (3) freshwater-saltwater interface delineation. Major specific technologies used by and available at the CACL include:
  • Geologic analyses (sequence stratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, paleontology, petrography, ichnology, karstology [Reese and Cunningham, 2000; Cunningham et al., 2001a,b, 2003, 2004a,b, 2006a,b, 2007, 2008, 2010a,b; Ward et al., 2003; Rigby and Cunningham 2007; Cunningham and Florea, 2009; Cunningham and Walker, 2009; Hine et al., 2009; Cunningham and Sukop, 2011; Cunningham and Sukop, 2012; Cunningham et al., 2012a,b])

  • Marine high-resolution multi-channel seismic (Kingdom Suite SMT™ software [Cunningham and Walker, 2009; Cunningham et al., 2012])
    figure showing marine high-resolution, multichannel seismic-reflection data
    Marine high-resolution, multichannel seismic-reflection data acquired on the southeastern Florida peninsula in a canal. [larger image]

  • Advanced borehole geophysics (Cunningham et al., 2004c, 2010b; Wacker and Cunningham, 2008)

  • Computational simulations (Shoemaker et al., 2008; Sukop et al., 2008; Cunningham et al., 2009, 2010b, 2012; Cunningham and Sukop, 2011; Sukop et al., 2013)

  • 3D geomodeling (ROXAR RMS™ software) (Cunningham et al., 2012)

  • Ground-penetrating radar (Cunningham et al., 2001b; Cunningham et al., 2003; Cunningham 2004)

  • Tracer studies (Renken et al., 2005; Cunningham et al., 2008; Harvey et al., 2008; Renken et al., 2008; Shapiro et al., 2008)

  • Hydraulic well testing (Renken et al., 2008; Shapiro et al., 2008)

  • Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (Florea et al., 2009)

  • X-ray computed tomography (Cunningham et al., 2009, 2010b; Cunningham and Sukop, 2011; 2012; Cunningham et al., 2012a; Sukop et al., 2013)

  • CHIRP portable sub-bottom profiler

  • Distributed temperature surveys

  • Water-based Supersting™ continuous resistivity surveys (CRP)

  • Geonics™ time-domain electromagnetic system (TDEM) (Scott T. Prinos, personal communication)

  • Geometrics™ Ohm-Mapper capacitively-coupled resistivity system


References:

Cunningham, K.J., 2014, Integration of Seismic-Reflection and Well Data to Assess the Potential Impact of Stratigraphic and Structural Features on Sustainable Water Supply from the Floridan Aquifer System, Broward County, Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2014-1136, 5 p.

Cunningham, K.J., 2014, Seismic-reflection imaging of geologic structure and seismic-sequence stratigraphy at North and South District Wastewater Treatment Plants, Miami-Dade County, Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report, in review.

King, J.N., Cunningham, K.J., and Foster, A.L., 2014, Models of the Transport of Deep-Well Injectate, between 1997 and 2011, at the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant, Miami-Dade County, Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report, in review.

Mount, G.J., Comas, X., and Cunningham, K.J., 2014, Characterization of the porosity distribution in the upper part of the karst Biscayne aquifer using common offset ground penetrating radar, Everglades National Park, Florida: Journal of Hydrology, v. 515, p. 223-236, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.04.048.

Powell, J.B., Collins, L.S., Robinson, E., and Cunningham, K.J., 2014, Larger foraminiferal biostratigraphy and systematics of the Ocala Limestone, Highlands County, Florida: Journal of Micropaleontology, in USGS review.

Powell, J.B., Collins, L.S., Robinson, E., and Cunningham, K.J., 2014, Larger foraminiferal systematics and biostratigraphy of the Avon Park Formation, Florida: Journal of Micropaleontology, in USGS review.

Prinos, S.T., Wacker, M.A., Cunningham, K.J., and Fitterman, D.V., 2014, Origins and delineation of saltwater Intrusion in the Biscayne aquifer and changes in the distribution of saltwater in Miami-Dade County, Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2014-5025, 101 p.

Reese, R.S., and Cunningham, K.J., 2014, Hydrogeologic framework and salinity distribution of the Floridan aquifer system of Broward County, Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 20145029, 60 p.

Sukop, M.C., and Cunningham, K.J., 2014, Lattice Boltzmann Methods Applied to Large-Scale Three-Dimensional Virtual Cores Constructed from Digital Optical Borehole Images of a the Karst Carbonate Biscayne Aquifer: submitted to Water Resources Research.

Wacker, M.A., Cunningham, K.J., and Williams, J.H., 2014, Hydrogeologic and Hydraulic Characterization of the Biscayne Aquifer within the Snapper Creek Municipal Well Field, Miami-Dade County, Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report X-XXX-X, in review.

Cunningham, K.J., 2013, Integrating Seismic-Reflection and Sequence-Stratigraphic Methods to Characterize the Hydrogeology of the Floridan Aquifer System in Southeast Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2013-1181, 8 p.

Reese, R.S., and Cunningham, K.J., 2013, Preliminary stratigraphic and hydrogeologic cross sections and seismic profile of the Floridan aquifer system of Broward County, Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 20131141, 10 p.

Sukop, M.C., Huang, H., Alvarez, P.F., Variano, E.A., and Cunningham, K.J., 2013, Evaluation of permeability and non-Darcy flow in vuggy macroporous limestone aquifer samples with lattice Boltzmann methods: Water Resources Research, v. 49, issue 1, p. 216-230, doi:10.1029/2011WR011788.

Cunningham, K.J., and Sukop, M.C., 2012, Megaporosity and permeability of Thalassinoides-dominated ichnofabrics in the Cretaceous carbonate Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, Texas: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1021, 4 p.

Cunningham, K.J., Sukop, M.C., and Curran, H.A., 2012, Chapter 28 - Carbonate aquifers, in Knaust, D. and Bromley, R.G., eds., Trace fossils as indicators of sedimentary environments - Developments in Sedimentology, v. 64: Elsevier, New York, p. 869-896.

Cunningham, K.J., Walker, C., and Westcott, R.L., 2012b, Near-surface, marine seismic-reflection data define potential hydrogeologic confinement bypass in the carbonate Floridan aquifer system, southeastern Florida: Society of Exploration Geophysicists 2012 Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, 6 p.

Cunningham, K.J., and Sukop, M.C., 2011, Multiple technologies applied to characterization of the porosity and permeability of the Biscayne aquifer, Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1037, 8 pp.

Cunningham, K.J., and Florea, L.J., 2009, The Biscayne aquifer of southeastern Florida. In Palmer, A.N., and Palmer, M.V., eds., Caves and Karst of the USA: Huntsville, Alabama, National Speleological Society, Inc., p. 196-199.

Cunningham, K.J., Sukop, M. C., Huang, H., Alvarez, P.F., Curran, H.A., Renken, R.A., and Dixon, J.F., 2009, Prominence of ichnologically influenced macroporosity in the karst Biscayne aquifer: Stratiform "super-K" zones: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 121, no. 1-2, p. 164-180; doi:10.1130/B26392.1.

Cunningham, K.J., and Walker, C., 2009, Seismic-sag structures in Tertiary carbonate rocks beneath southeastern Florida, USA: evidence for hypogenic speleogenesis?: In Klimchouk, A.B., and Ford, D.C., eds., Hypogene Speleogenesis and Karst Hydrogeology of Artesian Basins. Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology, Special Paper No. 1, Simferopol, Ukraine, p. 151-158. (Please note that this is a PDF file and requires the FREE Adobe Acrobat Reader® to be read.)

Florea, L.J., Cunningham, K.J., and Altobelli, S., 2009, NMR imaging of fluid exchange between macropores and matrix in eogenetic karst: Ground Water, p. 382-390.

Hine, A.C., Suthard, B., Locker, S.D., Cunningham, K.J., Duncan, D.D., Evans, M., and Morton, R.A., 2009, Karst subbasins and their relation to the transport of Tertiary siliciclastic sediments on the Florida Platform, in Swart, P.K., Eberli, G.P., and McKenzie, J.A., eds., Perspectives in Sedimentary Geology: A Tribute to the Career of Robert N. Ginsburg, International Association of Sedimentologists Special Publication, Wiley-Blackwell, v. 41, p. 179-197.

Cunningham, K.J., Sukop, M.C., Huang, H., Alvarez, P.F., Curran, H.A., Wacker, M.A., Florea, L.J., Renken, R.A., and Dixon, J.F., 2008, Biogenic Macroporosity and Its Lattice Boltzmann Method Permeability in the Karst Biscayne Aquifer: In Sasowsky, I.D., Feazel, C.T., Mylroie, J.E., Palmer, A.N., and Palmer, M.V., eds., Karst from Recent to Reservoirs: Special Publication 14, Karst Waters Institute Proceedings, Leesburg, VA, p. 30-35.

Florea, L.J., Cunningham, K.J., and Altobelli, S., 2008, Visualization of groundwater flow within touching-vug and matrix porosity in an eogenetic karst aquifer: In Sasowsky, I.D., Feazel, C.T., Mylroie, J.E., Palmer, A.N., and Palmer, M.V., eds., Karst from Recent to Reservoirs: Special Publication 14, Karst Waters Institute Proceedings, Leesburg, VA, p. 64-75.

Harvey, R.W., Metge, D.W., Shapiro, A.M., Renken, R.A., Osborn, C.L., Ryan, J.N., Cunningham, K.J., and Landkamer, Lee, 2008, Pathogen and chemical transport in the karst limestone of the Biscayne aquifer: 3. Use of microspheres to estimate the transport potential of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts: Water Resources Research, v. 44, W08431, doi:10.1029/2007WR006060.

Renken, R.A., Cunningham, K.J., Shapiro, A.M., Harvey, R.W., Zygnerski, M.R., Metge, D.W., and Wacker, M.A., 2008, Pathogen and chemical transport in the karst limestone of the Biscayne aquifer: 1. Revised conceptualization of groundwater flow: Water Resources Research, v. 44, W08429, doi:10.1029/2007WR006058.

Shoemaker, W.B., Cunningham, K.J., Kuniansky, E.L., and Dixon, J.F., 2008, Effects of turbulence on hydraulic heads and parameter sensitivities in preferential groundwater flow layers: Water Resources Research, v. 44, W03501, doi:10.1029/2007WR006601.

Sukop, M.C., Anwar, S. Lee, J.S., Cunningham, K.J., and Langevin, C.D., 2008, Modeling Ground-water Flow and Solute Transport in Karst with Lattice Boltzmann Methods: In E.L. Kuniansky, ed., U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, Bowling Green, Kentucky, May 27-29, 2008: Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5023, p. 77-86.

Wacker, M.A., and Cunningham, K.J., 2008, Borehole geophysical logging program: incorporating new and existing techniques in hydrologic studies: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2008-3098, 4 p.

Cunningham, K.J., Rigby, J.K., Wacker, M.A., and Curran, H.A., 2007, First documentation of tidal-channel sponge biostromes (upper Pleistocene, southeastern Florida). Geology, v. 35, p. 475-478; doi:10.1130/G23402A.1; 5 figures.

Rigby, J.K, and Cunningham, K.J., 2007, A new, large, late Pleistocene demosponge from southeastern Florida. Journal of Paleontology, v. 81, no. 4, p. 788-793.

Cunningham, K.J., Renken, R.A., Wacker, M.A., Zygnerski, M.R., Robinson, E., Shapiro, A.M., and Wingard, G.L., 2006, Application of carbonate cyclostratigraphy and borehole geophysics to delineate porosity and preferential flow in the karst limestone of the Biscayne aquifer, SE Florida, in Harmon, R.S., and Wicks, C., eds., Perspectives on karst geomorphology, hydrology, and geochemistry-A tribute volume to Derek C. Ford and William B. White: Geological Society of America Special Paper 404, p. 191-208, doi:10.1130/2006.2404(16).

Cunningham, K.J., Wacker, M.A., Robinson, Edward, Dixon, J.F., and Wingard, G.L., 2006, A Cyclostratigraphic and Borehole-Geophysical Approach to Development of a Three-Dimensional Conceptual Hydrogeologic Model of the Karstic Biscayne Aquifer, Southeastern Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5235, 69 p., plus CD.

Renken, R.A., Shapiro, A.M., Cunningham, K.J., and others, 2005, Assessing the vulnerability of a municipal well field to contamination in a karst aquifer: Environmental & Engineering Geoscience, v. 11, no. 4, p. 341-354. (Please note that this is a (1.4 MB) PDF file and requires the FREE Adobe Acrobat Reader® to be read.)

Cunningham, K.J., 2004, Application of ground-penetrating radar, digital optical borehole images, and core for characterization of porosity and paleokarst in the Biscayne aquifer, southeastern Florida, USA. Journal of Applied Geophysics, v. 55, 77-90.

Cunningham, K.J., Carlson, J.I., and Hurley, N.F., 2004c, New method for quantification of vuggy porosity from digital optical borehole images as applied to the karstic Pleistocene limestone of the Biscayne aquifer, southeastern Florida. Journal of Applied Geophysics, v. 55, 61-76.

Cunningham, K.J., Carlson, J.L., Wingard, G.L., and others, 2004a, Characterization of aquifer heterogeneity using cyclostratigraphy and geophysical methods in the upper part of the Biscayne aquifer, southeastern Florida: relation to rock fabric and sequence stratgraphy. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4208, 46 p.

Cunningham, K.J., Wacker, M.A., Robinson, Edward, and others, 2004b, Hydrogeology and ground-water flow at Levee-31N, Miami-Dade County, Florida, July 2003 to May 2004. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map I-2846, 1 sheet.

Cunningham, K.J., Locker, S.D., Hine, A.C., and others, 2003, Interplay of Late Cenozoic Siliciclastic Supply and Carbonate Response on the Southeast Florida Platform: Journal of Sedimentary Research, v. 73, 31-46.

Ward, W.C., Cunningham, K.J., Renken, R.A., Wacker, M.A., and Carlson, J.I., 2003, Sequence-Stratigraphic Analysis of the Regional Observation Monitoring Program (ROMP) 29A Test Corehole and Its Relation to Carbonate Porosity and Regional Transmissivity in the Floridan Aquifer System, Highlands County, Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-201, 34 p.

Cunningham, K.J., and Collins, L.S., 2002, Controls on facies and sequence stratigraphy of an upper Miocene carbonate ramp and platform, Melilla basin, NE Morocco. Sedimentary Geology, v. 146, 285-304.

Cunningham, K.J., Locker, S.D., Hine, A.C., and others, 2001b, Surface-geophysical characterization of ground- water systems of the Caloosahatchee River Basin, southern Florida. U.S. Geological Survey Water- Resources Investigations Report 01-4084, 76 p.

Reese, R.S. and Cunningham, K.J., 2000, Hydrogeology of the gray limestone aquifer in southern Florida. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4213, 244 p.


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